It is the branch of medicine dealing with the properties (Guna), action (Karma) therapeutic uses of Dravya and also the knowledge of the properties, Karma and action of the drug. This subject also includes identification the drug and source of drug
It includes 7 padartha , Dravy, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka , Prabhava and Karma. Discussion of each terms are given below.
Dravya – Dravya is a substratum in which guna and karma are inheritly associated (Samawaya) and they are applied for therapeutics by the law of similarity (samanya) and dissimilarity (vishesha)
Rasa – Rasa is the object of the gustatory sense organ which is located in the tongue . It is not only perception of taste but is an indicator of the composition , properties and probable action of the tongue. There are six type of rasa.
|Rasa||Panchamahabhoota(Five Great Elements)|
|Madhur||P + J (Earth+Water)|
|Amla||P+A (Earth + Fire)|
|Lawana||J+A (Water+ Fire)|
|Tikta||V+Aakash (Air+ Ether)|
Guna – These are properties inheret in Dravya and it modulates the drug action. There are 41 types of guna categorized into 4 classes.
|Artha||5 in number|
|Gurwadi Guna||20 in number|
|Paradi guna||10 in number|
|Adhyatmik Guna||6 in number|
Virya- Potency through which the drug acts.
Vipaka- Action exhibited after digestion
Prabhava- Specific action of drug that cannot be define through their properties. It is most potent among all guna
Some example- Tridoshhara = Haritaki, Guggul, Vamana = Madanphal, Hridya = Arjuna, Asmaribhedan = Pashanveda, Medhya = bhrami, sankhapushpi
Karma – It is that which causes samyogo and viyoga. It is of 5 types.
This is the very basic concept of Dravyaguna in Ayurveda.