Hiccup (Hikka) treatment in Ayurveda

In daily routine of our life sometime hiccup creates a great problem. So lets approach hiccups according to Ayurveda. There are 5 kinds of hiccup. Their causes, premonitory symptoms, kinds, and development are the same as diseases of difficult breathing.

Type 1. Food-caused (annaa hikka): Vata becomes aggravated by eating too quickly and improperly, or eating and drinking dry, penetrating, rough, and unaccustomed foods. This produces a painless hiccup. It is quiet, then followed by sneezing. It ceases when foods and drinks that one may be accustomed to are ingested.

Type 2. Exertion-caused (kähudrá hikka): Vata becomes mildly increased from exertion. This causesa slight hiccup from the base of the shoulders. It ceases after eating food.

Type 3. Indigestion-caused (yamalá hikka): This type arises when one hasn’t eaten for many hours or when digestion is not working properly. These hiccups come in pairs, causing tremors in the head and neck, gas, severe thirst, nonsensical speech, vomiting, diarrhea, unsteady eyes, and yawning.

Type 4. (mahatí hikka): Rigidity develops in the eyebrows and sides of neck, eyes become red and teary, there is loss of body movements, speech, memory, and awareness. Food is obstructed from moving, causing the vital organs to feel like they have been hit. The body bends backwards and emaciation develops. These types of hiccups arise from deep inside the body, forcefully, with great sounds. Type 5 (gambhírá hikka): This hiccup begins either in the colon or in the navel region.  Symptoms are similar to Type 4, but with more yawning, body expansion, and vibrating sounds.

Hiccups caused by food and exertion are most easily healed. Severe hiccups should be taken seriously.

Treatments of hiccup: For both difficult breathing and hiccup oil and sweat (náæí, bolus or steam tent) are required. First, persons undergo an oil massage with black salt (with Pitta constitution) When there are Pitta problems, such as burning, excessive bleeding or sweating, weakness and tissue depletion, or pregnancy, black salt should not be used. Oil loosens and dissolves the thick phlegm blocking the breathing channels, softening them, and rebalancing Vata.

Afterwards, a light diet of basmati rice and ghee or sesame oil is taken to increase Kapha. Then one is ready for emesis with pippali, rock salt, and honey (reducing Kapha and Vata). After emesis releases the excess Kapha, the channels are cleared, and the Vata begins to flow properly. Should there be any remaining Kapha, turmeric and barley grain are mixed with ghee and smoked.

When either of these illnesses is associated with a weak voice, diarrhea, internal bleeding, or burning, one eats foods that are sweet, oily, and cold.  Short periods of fomentation are applied to the chest and throat. Warm oil is mixed with cane sugar, orpoultices are made with sesame and whole wheat, Vata-reducing herbs, foods, sour herbs (e.g., ámalakí), and milk are ingested. Other herbs include dashmúl, pippali, trikatu, balaa, chitrak, dry ginger, gokshura, guæúchí, black salt; along with yogurt,ghee, dry radish, ghee, rice, and barley. Dashmúl also removes complications of thirst.

A general herbal recipe includes bilwa, gokshura, guæúchí, balaa, trikatu, chitrak, pippali, ginger decoction with ghee, black pepper, and black salt.

If a strong fever with toxins (áma) develops, reduction therapy (langana) is used (i.e., Pancha karma, exercise, sun bathing, etc.). Emesis with salt water is especially useful.

Should these therapies cause a Vata excess, balanced can be regained through Vata-reducing foods and warm massage.

If gas, distention, and constipation develop owing to Vata, foods with black salt, ámlavetasa, or hingwasták are recommended.

Hiccup is predominated by Kapha, and is healed through emesis, purgation, a wholesome diet, and pacification therapy, using herbal smoking (for strong persons only).

When weak children or elderly persons develop excess Vata, oil therapies are used to reduce excess air. It is important not to use laxatives when there is not an excess of Kapha. To do so may dry up the vital organs and threaten the person. Refer difficult breathing section for specific dosha therapies.

For hiccup, ghee mixed with triphala, or castor oil quickly stops the situation. Suddenly sprinkling cold water on persons with hiccups is helpful. Slowly drinking water nonstop for 30 seconds or until the hiccups cease is another option. Other therapies include frightening or causing surprise, anger, exhilaration, or separation from loved ones.

All foods and herbs should simultaneously reduce excess Kapha and Vata. Ghee is used in all situations. These are some of the Ayurveda tips for hiccup (hikka)

Kapalabhati (कपालभाति) Lustrous Breath in Yoga

Kapalabhati, कपालभाति or “Lustrous Breath,” is one of the extremely energizing and vitalizing breathing techniques. In a short period of time, it brings a great volume of oxygen into the body, helps to warm and invigorate the vital organs, and aids in circulating blood quickly throughout the entire body.

In preparation to practice Lustrous Breath, assume a comfortable seated position as described in “Alternate Nostril Breathing.” Allow your hands to rest gently on your kneecaps, thighs, or in your lap. Take a few deep breaths to center yourself. Now, as you breathe through your nose, contract your abdomen as you exhale. Press your navel toward your spine as you expel whatever air is in your abdomen. (See Fig. 16.3.) As soon as the air is expelled, let your abdomen relax as your body naturally inhales fresh air. Then, exhale once again, as you contract your abdomen. Let your emphasis be on the quick, rapid, and forceful (but not forced or painful!) exhalation of air from your abdomen. Your abdomen flattens as you compress it on the exhalation, and the air naturally fills it again as you inhale. Continue exhaling and inhaling in this manner. The rapid contraction and filling of your abdomen as air is expelled and inhaled creates a type of pumping motion. If you have difficulty practicing Lustrous Breath, you might imagine that there is a feather resting on the top of your nose and you are trying to blow it off, contracting the muscles of your abdomen to initiate the exhalation. As you exhale, compress your bellybutton back toward your spine.

As you practice this breathing technique, you may want to have a handkerchief or some tissues at hand. You may find mucous secretions being more actively released from your nose on your forceful exhalations. Lustrous Breath has the added benefit of helping clear and cleanse the nasal passageways.

When you first begin to practice Lustrous Breath, try doing 20 to 30 Lustrous Breaths at a time (one active exhalation followed by a spontaneous inhalation constitutes one Lustrous Breath). Pause and rest. Then try some more. With experience, you will probably find that you can increase the period of time and numbers of inhalations and exhalations that you can accomplish without feeling fatigued.

Lustrous Breath can be particularly invigorating and energizing. As you experiment with it, see what effect it has on you. How do you feel after a round of Lustrous Breath repetitions? How do you feel relative to how you felt before you began this breathing practice? Are you aware of any difficulties or pleasurable effects that you experience as a result of this practice? As your day progresses, are you aware of any changes in your level of energy? Feel the importance of kapalbhati in yoga.


Ayurveda and beauty

Everyone has heard the sayings, ‘beauty is only skin deep’, and ‘beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.’ So beauty is such a beautiful word that everybody prefers to describe. Here, let’s approach the beauty from Ayurvedic point of view.

Ayurveda adds a spiritual dimension to the definition of beauty by saying:

“Inner peace brings outer beauty”

It says outer beauty as an integrated by-product of inner beauty and virtue. Inner beauty is developed through meditation, proper diet, ethics, a positive self-image, and various therapies, such as aroma therapy, yoga, and abhyanga (a massage-like therapy). These are the essential ingredients for developing a true and lasting aura of beauty.

Besides the seven doshas (Vata-Air, Pitta-Fire, Kapha-Water, Vata/Pitta, Vata/Kapha, Pitta/ Kapha, Tridoshic (all three dosha)), a special category exists known as changing skin conditions.

Despite one’s dosha, skin conditions change depending upon one’s diet, exercise, and the climate. Sensitivity towards cold, dryness and the sun may exist. It is important to remember that it takes the body between 3 and 5 years to adjust to good or bad eating habits and climate.

This is one reason that Ayurveda suggests gradual changes towards building a healthier lifestyle. It takes time for a toxic body to be cleanses; new cells and tissues built; and a new way of life and health to develop. Below are some Ayurvedic beauty care tips.

Post-Surgery: When the skin becomes scarred from surgery, herbs help heal the tissues. Aloe vera gel and mañjishþhá are the main recommendations.

Acne: Not only do teenagers get acne, but also many adults suffer from this condition. Acne is generally an excess of Pitta (fire). Therefore, Ayurveda approaches acne from both symptomatic and causal levels. To remove symptoms, turmeric cream and sandalwood soap, found in most Indian grocery store, work very quickly.

Simultaneously, one also should reduce the causes—the excess fire and toxins inside the body. If neglected, Pitta and toxins will cause acne to reappear, or manifest as illness in another part of the body (e.g., eyes, liver, spleen, gall bladder, heat, blood, and infections). For causal balancing or healing, persons should follow a fire- (Pitta) reduction diet.

Seasonal Conditions: Each season has a predominance of Vata (air), Pitta (fire), or Kapha (water). Ayurveda recommends that persons protect themselves from these environmental changes.

The epic list post we’ve just released about the 92 Sneaky Causes Of Acne.
Check it out here: https://www.thankyourskin.com/what-causes-acne/.

Treatment of Blocked sub-vatas and Doshas

There are different types of vata as discussed in earlier posts. Here is the tabulation of symptoms and treatments of different types of Vata. Hope this would be helpful.

All sub-types of Vata can and do cover each other, for a total of 20 types of mutual covering.

Treatment of Blocked sub-vatas and Doshas

Covering Sub-type Covered Sub-type Symptoms  Treatment
prana vyana vacantness of all senses, diminution of intellect, memory and strength manage like supraclavicular disorders
vyana prana excessive sweating, horripilation, skin diseases, numbness in body parts unctuous purgatives
samana prana disorders of grahani, sides and heart, and pain in stomach appetizing ghritas
prana samana stunning, stammering, dumbness uncting substances used in 4 ways (intake, massage, snuffing + enema), and also in sustaining enemas.
prana udana stiffness in head, coryza, difficulty in respiration, cardiac disorder, dryness in mouth Treatment as in supraclavicular diseases, consoling at the same time.
udana prana loss of activity, immunity, strength, and complexion or even death. Sprinkled slowly with cold waters, consoled, and given all comforts.
prana apana Vomiting, dyspnoea, etc. Enema, etc. (the 5 karmas?), and carminitive, light diet.
apana prana Mental confusion, diminution of digestive fire, diarrhoea Emesis, appetising and astringent diet.
vyana apana vomiting, tympanitis, usavarta, gulma, distress, cutting pain Unctuous measures
apana vyana excessive discharge of stool, urine and semen Astringent measures
samana vyana fainting, drowsiness, delirium, malaise, loss of agni, immunity, and strength. physical exercise and light food
udana vyana Stiffness, poor digestion, absence of sweating, loss of activity, and closing of eyes. Wholesome, measured and light food.

Mastering the information on the above chart on Vata Sub-types will take great skill. The best place for the novice to start may be to memorize the symptoms associated with the various combinations of sub-type coverings.  By repeated practice in identifying these combinations, one should eventually become proficient at identifying the workings of the V sub-types directly.

General Treatment for The Vata Sub-types: Udana should be led upwards, apana should be directed downwards,   samana should be brought back to the middle [umbilical region] and vyana should be moved in all these three directions. Prana should be protected most carefully, because it’s location in its normal location is essential.  Those Vata sub-types dosha which are covered or moving in the wrong course should be brought back to their normal positions.

Importance of Prompt Treatment of Vata sub-type dosha

The wise, in case of a disease, gets relief by external or internal or surgical measures. The childish, due to confusion or carelessness do not know about the emerging disorder in early stage as fools about the enemy. The disorder, though having a minute start, advances afterwards and gradually becoming deep-rooted takes away the strength and life of the foolish one. The fool does not realize till he is afflicted and only then he decides to control the disease. Then he collects son, wife and kin and requests them to bring some physician even at the cost of his entire possession, but who can save him, the devoid of life, weak, afflicted, emaciated, anxious and with the sense organs waned away. Thus not finding a savior that fool leaves his life like an iguana with her tail bound and dragged by a strong person. Hence one, who wishes happiness, should counteract with medicines before the disorder is produced or when it is newly arisen.

Salute to the Sun ( Suryanamaskara)



Surya Namaskar is one of the best yoga postures. This posture is great form of exercise for the healthy living. Further it is useful in many other treatements.

During the practice of the sun salutation or as it’s known in its traditional form – Suryanamaskara – nearly every muscle, organ and tissue of the body is activated, stimulated and awakened. Energy flows, vitality is stimulated, heart rate is increased and the vital forces of life are distributed throughout the body. This is a great motivation for the practice of the sun salutation series in the morning, and a magnificent way to wake and honour the body both internally and externally.

During this practice, the body is opened and closed in a sequence of forward and backward bends which massage our internal organs, improving digestion and tone of the abdomen.

Salute to the Sun – the Practice

As we draw our arms to the sky we look up to acknowledge the intelligence beyond, the greater order, the truth, creation and love. We salute the source and acknowledge its passage through our body.

We draw down our arms, palms together, touching our heart Centre as we pass to touch the floor. Here we have drawn the power of creation from the above and beyond to the below and within. We humble ourselves to the source as we hold our hands to the earth acknowledging that: “nothing comes from me, only through me”. We jump back into the crocodile and here honour nature, the animal world and the essence of life stored within. We raise our body bending our back into an upward dog pose opening the chest and in so doing freeing the heart to the flow of love from the sun, the entry source of life forms, flow within and birth love in our hearts. We roll back into the downward dog again humbling ourselves to creation before jumping forward and completing the cycle with the same positions holding meaning.

“I bow to the source of all creation acknowledging that what is within me is a gift, a true gift of life and ultimately, love.

 Traditionally, a salute to the sun is done at dawn, the Brahman hour. This is the time before sunrise, a time we can take to reflect on the source of life. The sun gives life force and vitality to us all, it is the rest metaphor for unconditional love reflected in nature.

Our thoughts are reflected in our body, our thoughts reflect our consciousness which in turn is a reflection of our attitude. Attitude has the power to transform our lives, to change the very essence of our experience of life. During the sun salutation we have the opportunity to focus on an attitude of Gratitude, the opportunity to use the focus of the sun to  transform these movements from mere exercise to a prayer.

When our heart is filled with gratitude for nature – in this specific case the sun – we open ourselves to a consciousness beyond and in these moments we bathe in universal love; in the fullness of life. Therefore in the practice of Surya Namaskar , as in all Yoga Asana, the thoughts we have are as vital an element as is breath as the physical movement.

This is an opportunity to stop; to appreciate what has been given to us in our lives; to open to the greater truth and to the magic and order of this universe, this world, this country, this city, this family and this life. Here in the act of movement and breath is the opportunity to unite body, mind and thought (spirit) in a celebration of life and in so doing absorb  universal essence.


Power Within and Without

This salute to the sun is one of the most powerful of all Yoga movements. Practiced every morning it moves, stretches, strengthens and activates every muscle in the body; The salute to the sun is an amazing exercise and a Yoga session in itself and the benefits as listed below are so numerous and all encompassing that just reading through them is cause for excitement; excitement that these body restoring benefits are easily within our reach.


The Practical Benefits of Salute to the Sun

  1. May be practice by anyone and everyone, singly or in a group, and it can be practiced any time in the year, inside and outside.
  2.  It takes about three to ten minutes a day.
  3.  It acts on the whole body, the total organism.
  4.  Does not cause fatigue or breathlessness.
  5. It costs nothing there is no need for burdensome equipment.
  6. All you need is a space measuring two square metres.
  7. It helps to promote sleep.
  8. The memory improves.

So this form of yoga called Surya namaskar must be followed by everybody.


Maatra of Aahaara (Quantity of food to be eaten)

Any padartha which passes through Anna maarga , provides energy for life, nourishes Dhatus, protects and replenishes then stabilize life processes, originate (help) in body organs is called as Aahaara. For any person, Desha, Kaala vaya, etc should be considered before deciding aahaaramaatra and aahaaravidhi.

Along with so many rules and regulations, one more very important direction should be kept in mind i.e. aahaaramaatraaa.

Stomach should be divided into three parts. One part should be filled with solid food, one should be filled with liquid food and one should be kept empty for movements of three dosaah Vaata, pitta and kapha. If this is observed, it fetches good results.

How to recognize food eaten is appropriate in amount?

Manifestations fetched by eating in proper amount are as follows:

After food no pain is felt in flanks.

  1. One doesn’t feel obstruction in cardiac area (kukshi).
  2. One doesn’t feel backache.
  3. One doesn’t feel heaviness in abdomen.
  4. One feels that his special senses are fresh.
  5. One satisfies his hunger and thirst.
  6. One feels ease in sitting posture, sleeping posture, respiration, laughing and talking.
  7. Morning and evening smooth excretion of excretory products takes place.
  8. This adds to strength, good color and well nourishment that one should eat proper amount of food.

Three Doshas- Vata, Pitta and Kapha in Ayurveda

 Ayurveda is mainly focused in the three great terms viz. Vata, Pitta and Kapha; called Tridosha. These are the great physiological terms so to understand this properly is to understand all about Ayurveda. The general meaning of Vata, Pitta and Kapha may be air, bile and sputum respectively but it’s not that. These terms in Ayurveda has a great significance.

Vata may be understood as nerve force, electro-motor, physical activity or that, which is responsible for motion. It is commonly called air. The root, ‘va’ means to spread. In Western terms, it is the electricity setting the organism into motion, maintaining the equilibrium between Pitta and Kapha (inerts). Vata relates to the nerve-force. It is responsible for all movement in the mind and body. The movement of Vata even regulates the balance of Pitta and Kapha. Pitta relates to internal fire, bile, body heat, digestive enzymes, physio-chemical, biological, metabolic and endocrine systems. It is responsible for digesting the chyle into a protoplasmic substance like sperm and ovum.

Kapha fills the intercellular spaces of the body as connective tissue. Examples of these tissues include mucus, synovial fluid, and tendons. Kapha is responsible for the gross structure of the body (solid and liquid/phlegm-plasma). Each person is made up of a combination of these elements.

Together, the doshas are responsible for catabolic and anabolic metabolism. Catabolism breaks down complex internal bodies, and Vata (air energy) sets this energy free into simpler waste. Anabolism takes food and builds it into more complex bodies. The summit of the metabolic process is protoplasm or essential matter [proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and inorganic salts]. Lifeless food becomes living protoplasm and is set free as useful energy or excess heat or motion that is emitted from the body. Thus, the purpose of the three doshas is to move the lymph chyle (the by-product of digested foods) throughout the body. This nourishes and builds the body tissues. When any or all of the doshas develop imbalance, the body ceases to be nourished, and disease develops.

The three doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) exist throughout the entire body, in every cell, yet are predominant (their sites of origin) in the colon, small intestine, and stomach, respectively. Some authorities say that Vata primarily resides below the navel, Pitta from the navel to the heart, and Kapha, above the heart.

Vata is also found in (governing) the waist, thighs, ear, bones, and skin. Pitta also governs the navel, sweat, lymph, blood, eye, and skin. Kapha additionally controls the chest, throat, head, bone joints, small intestine, plasma, fat, nose, and tongue.

Finally whatever we do to try to understand these three Tridosha; knowledge is still unsatisfactory. Yes of course we can satisfy our knowledge on Ayurveda but wisdom is still lacking. I love this beauty of Ayurveda.

Directions of eating (Aahaara upayoga sanstha )

Some things are originally healthy. But, the upayogasansthaa affects the quality of food. In Ayurveda text it is mentioned that the satmya or healthy food may be unhealthy according to the directions of use. So, they should be religiously observed for appropriate digestion of food resulting better health. Rules of such kind, which should be observed while taking food, are

  • One should eat hot:

Warm food is pleasant to eat i.e. tastes good; it increases appetite and secretion of digestive juices. Such food gets digested fast; it induces flatus and decreases Doshas kapha.

  • Unctuous food should be taken:

It enhances weak Agni. It digests food fast. It helps to pass flatus. It replenishes or nourishes body. It strengthens special senses. It increases body strength.

  • In proper amount suitable for individual eating it:

One should eat calculated amount of food. It shouldn’t be eaten in excess or in fewer amounts. Such food maintains physiological level of dosaah. It passes excreta smoothly. Agni is by no way harassed. Digestion is perfect.

  • One should eat only when previous meal is digested:

If eaten before digestion of previous meal, food to be digested gets mixed with food which is half digested. This leads to instant vitiation of three dosaah. but if eaten when previous food is ingested, all three dosaah remain in physiological limits, agni is enhanced, belching is without any smell, no pressure of heart is realized, excreta is smoothly expelled, all building blocks are well maintained and there by span of life is increased.

  •   Food stuffs with opposite virya should not be eaten together:

Two opposite strong qualities should be avoided to eat together. Such kind of eating generates disease for e.g., to eat hot and cold together.

  • Should eat in pleasant place:

One should not eat where one does not like to eat in bad places or in hideous places. One should not eat in cutlery. Psychological effect of things is emphasized here.

  • One should not eat very fast:

If one eats very fast, he chokes, vomits, insults food and develops disliking towards food.

  • One should not eat very slow:

If one eats very slowly, he doesn’t get satiety hence he eats more. Food gets cold. It for this reason does not digest appropriately.

  • One shouldn’t eat while talking or laugh while eating,

This vitiates dosha,

  • One should eat for himself with appropriate manner:

This is suitable for me – one should think while eating. This make him eats properly.

One who takes food observing the above ten rules gets satiety of food, health and proper digestion. This is also compulsory for proper nutrition accoeding to Ayurveda.

Direction for ingestion of food

According to Ayurveda, the food should be ingested considering – Prakriti, karana, samyoga, raashi, desha, kaala, upayogasamsthaa and upayoktaa. The directions of eating as stated by Caraka are:

  • Prakriti is the original qualities of food and medicines. For e.g. Black gram is heavy to digest whereas green gram is light to digest.
  • Karana is alreration made while cooking of food. These alterations and applications of various methods like – soaking, churning, cooking, roasting, washing, etc-change the quality of food stuff. For e.g. raw rice is heavier than roasted rice. A curd obstructs conveying channels; yet if churned, buttermilk enhances Agni.
  • Samyoga means combination of two or many items together. Single item may be good for health; combination may be harmful. For e.g., fish is good for health. Milk is good for health. Both are good for health if consumed separately. If they both are eaten in combination, it is worst for health, as this combination acts like poison in body and is responsible for generation of many diseases. so the change in quality of food after mixing should be considered while taking food as the healthy food may convert to poison after mixing with other.
  • Raashi is the amount of ingestion of food. This is observed in two ways- one way is to calculate total amount of food eaten and another way is to calculate each entity of food item consumed. If the Maatra or raashi of food is not considered it may give rise to various digestive problems and may cause incurable( asaadhya) aama( digestive) disease including Visuchikaa, alasaka, ajeerna and dandaalasaka
  • Desha denotes place of origin of food stuff whether it is offspring of cool country or warm country; it also denotes body, which consumes it. It means habit of body to eat certain type of food. As the quality of food and nature of consumer changes according to desha or dwelling places.
  • Kaala denotes condition of body, whether the consumer is in healthy condition or he is sick. Also kaala means the time of consuming food.
  • Upayogasamathaa indicate when to eat and not to eat. It is expected that one should eat only when previous diet is digested. Not observing this rule may prove dangerous to Agni efficiency.
  • Upauoktaa is one who eats. He should think of his own constitution, habit and then eat accordingly

If the above stated factors are not considered while taking food, the food may not do good to health because the quality of food varies according to the above which alter their actions in the body. The same food may be healthful for someone whereas it may degrade the health in other.

Ultimate fate of eaten food (Aaharaparinamkara Bhaava)

According to Ayurveda Aharaparinamkara bhava is the ultimate fate of eaten food in living body. If eaten food is as per requisites of body entities, ‘ultimate fate of food’ facilitates health. Otherwise eaten food could be problematic to health.

Ingested food is bio-transformed into body entities. If food bears qualities facilitating body entities, it is able to nourish and replenish these body entities. If food bears qualities opposite to body entities, such food is capable of killing these body entities. Hence ‘ultimate fate of food’ is to either facilitate or opposes body entities. Factors which make food to undergo ‘ultimate fate’ are called ‘Aharaparinamkara bhava’.

In other words we can say that taking food only do not nourish the body, but rather it should be digested properly or biotransformation of food should be appropriate within the body. There are many factors which affect the process of digestion which is called Aharaparinamkara bhava. The factors responsible for bio-transformation of food are:

1.   Ushma:

Ushma is parallel to Agni in word. Just as fire boils rice from raw grains, this ushma digests ingested boiled rice to absorbable products. This is the action of Agni or pacakaagni, as far as digestive system is concerned.

Similar thought is read in modern physiology of digestion. Maintenance of temperature (ushma) in digestive tract is extremely important for digestion. Digestive enzymes need typical temperature and appropriate pH in GI tract, without which digestion becomes impossible. Hence, this factor is directly responsible for digestion.

2.    Vaayu:

Vaayu or movements and stimulation of various kinds is supplementary in digestion

Other factors like vaayu are helpful in biochemical reactions of digestion of food. Vaayu drags food to proper place where Agni actually exists. Not only this but Samaana Vaayu also adds to stimulate Agni. This Agni is another help to digestion of food.

Supplementary functions of vaayu are-to induce secretion of enzymes in GI tract.

Similar thought is read in modern physiology of digestion. Movements of stomach, small intestine are in accordance to presence or absence of food; in presence of food, they are in accordance to facilitate and smoothen sown digestive functions.

3.    Kleda:

Kleda is again necessary supplementary factor as it helps in disintegrating coarse food material into finer particles. Kleda is moisture. In digestion this moisture is provided by ‘Kledaka kapha’ in stomach or aamaasaya. Kledaka kapha soaks all food material whether taken with fluid or dry and makes a fine paste of chewed food in stomach.

Similar thought is read in modern physiology of digestion. Food coming from stomach is already in fine state. This is due to churningt movements of stomach as well as mucus in stomach. Duodenum sphincture does not allow coarse food to enter.

4.    Sneha:

Sneha is in context to softness brought to food.

Similarly mucus in GI tract functions in the same fashion as read in modern physiology.

5.    Kaala:

Kaala is considered in this context as time required for digestion. However efficient enzymes are, however effective movements are, food must get certain period to get digested

Similar thought is read in modern physiology of digestion. Retention of food for the purpose of admixture with enzymes and allied appropriate movements of GI tract are described in modern physiology.

6.    Samyoga:

Samyoga is healthy combination of food items. If food items are mixed in wrong way or in wrong proportion or are cooked in wrong blending; food becomes unhealthy for human GI tract.Similarly, for proper digestion other factors should also be taken into consideration such as; when to eat (time to eat), how much to eat (quantity of food), how to eat (process of eating), etc