Shalyatantra (Surgery in Ayurveda)
Sushruta has described it as the first and foremost specialty. Sushruta can be well-defined as the father of not only Indian surgery but of world surgery. He has described various stages (types) of inflammation, accidental wounds, burns, fractures and many major abdominal operations like intestinal—obstruction, stone in the bladder etc., and also specialized surgery like Plastic surgery (Rhinoplasty).
Sushruta was the first man who advocated a good knowledge of anatomy and dissection of a dead body as essential for being a good surgeon, but later on Buddhism and certain traditions came in the way of development of this branch. Even today, Sushruta contains very useful material for further research work. However, now efforts are being made to revive certain techniques advocated by Sushruta in the Banaras Hindu University and other places.
Sushruta specialized in cosmetic plastic surgery. Westerners got the idea of plastic surgery, when a local Ayurvedic surgeon re-created the nose of a British soldier named Kovaski, which he lost in a battle with Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1792. This is why Sushrutha is regarded as the father of modern plastic surgery.
For example, Ksharsutra Chikitsa in anorectal diseases has been revived and in the cases of Fistula in Ano, it has been proved more advantageous and efficacious in comparison to modern surgical operations and sophisticated techniques.