How are Patient treated through Ayurveda

Ayurveda has its own procedure for dealing with disease and patient. First of all diagnosis is done by inspection (दर्शन), palpation (स्पर्शन), and interrogation (प्रश्‍न). The specific examination includes the standard eight-point examination: (1) pulse, (2) urine, (3) stool, (4) tongue, (5) eye, (6) skin, (7) speech and voice, and (8) general appearance. These eight examination is done to find out the, particular disease is due to vitiation of which Tridosha.

 

Examination

Vata 

Pitta

Kapha

1. Pulse

Thread­like, feeble, 

snake­like motion 

Moderately heavy, 

and jumps like a frog

Heavy, slow, 

flows like swan

2. Urine 

 

Drop of sesame oil 

spreads on the surface  

of urine gives:

Black–brown color

 

 

Wave­like movement

Dark brown color

 

 

Multiple colors, like 

rainbow

Cloudy appearance

 

 

Pearl like droplets

3. Stool

 

Uniform, dark color

Yellowish color

Bulky foul smell

4. Tongue

 

Black to brown, dry, 

coarse, furred, pigmented

Red, yellow, or green,

 soft, sharp, moist

Whitish color, pale 

coated, big, soft.

5. Eye

 

Small, conjunctiva, muddy, 

iris is dark gray or brown

Moderate size, sharp, 

more sensitive to light

Large, moist, oily, 

conjunctiva is white

6. Skin

 

Dry, coarse, wrinkled,

 dusky

Wheat color, copper like color, shiny, moist

Soft, off-white, smooth, moist

7. Speech and voice

Coarse and dry

Sharp

Heavy

Before this I would like to enter into Charak Samhita (One of the 3 great triads). Here, four component of disease management are described. They are; first, the Physician, the drug, the patient and the attendant. A physician must have proper training, knowledge, and experience. A remedy must be abundantly available, effective, and relatively safe. A patient must provide all information to the physician about the disorder and be compliant. An attendant (a nurse) must have the knowledge of patient care, dexterity, loyalty, and cleanliness.

How actually the patients are cured?

First of all if there is the imbalance of Tridosha, it is balanced by using different herbal formulas, dietary and lifestyle interventions to bring dosas back into balance. Next is to eliminate the serious worry (Chinta), and and nurturing the soul to regain spiritual health (Samana). Ayurveda equally focus on physical health, mental health and spiritual health. This is the beauty of Ayurveda. Further more management of illness primarily consists of four procedures: (1) cleansing (samsodhan), (2) palliation (samsaman), (3) rejuvenation (kaya kalp), and (4) mental and spiritual healing (sattvavajaya, or psychotherapy). The management of an illness starts with cleansing and includes five procedures called panchakarma, all of which are not necessarily done at the same time or to all patients.

Dincharya, Daily routine in Ayurveda

In Sanskrit, the word dincharya refers to daily routine. According to Ayurveda one should follow the dincharya in order to live a healthy and disease free life. Everyday two cycles of chains pass through the human body each bringing a vata, Pitta or Kapha predominance. Based on the cycles of Vata, pita and Kapha our daily routine should be divided into morning, noon, evening/twilight, dinner, and bed time. In the Ayurvedic text it is written that a persons should wake up 2 hrs prior to sunrise, if he/she not suffering from any disease such as fever or diarrhea. Very young, very old and sick people are some of the exceptions.

According to dincharya the day should be kick started  by eliminating the colon and the bladder followed by a through cleaning of the senses- ears, eyes, mouth etc. This should be followed by an oil self massage. Exercise in the morning just after the massage helps rejuvenate the body and soul. After bathing, one should head towards the dining table for breakfast. The days followed by activities like studying working or travelling. During the lunch, one should consume nutritious meal. After working for day, twilight is the time to offer evening prayers. Dinner should consist of a light meal. Before going to bed, one should sit back and relax. By following the dincharya of Ayurveda one can insure a healthy life.

Though it is difficult to follow a stringent dincharya in the fast moving life it is highly recommended by Ayurvedic physicians because a number of health benefits are associated with it. The dincharya makes one to lead a healthy and disciplined life. According to the latest studies, in the field of medical science, people who stick to the daily routine are more fit than those, who do not have a particular time to perform their everyday activities. It is said that the dincharya reduces the stress level to a great extent. In addition to this, the person’s body is purified and detoxified. Therefore barring a few exception like sickness, very old and young age, Ayurvedic dincharya is recommended for everyone.

One should try to keep the routine as close to the recommended dincharya as possible. The body might resist the change for a first few days but if you do managed to persist then you are bound to get rewarded with a much healthier and satisfying life.

Laxmi Narayan Bhagat

Piyush granthi, (Pituitary gland) and mann in Ayurveda

Pituitary gland in Ayurveda is called Piyush Granthi. It is the master gland of the body that controls the function of all endocrine gland. Recent research proved that oxytocins helpful for social memory i.e. recognize person. If pituitary gland has hyper or hypo secretion of its hormones, this effects whole body functions including the nervous system. And on the other side in Ayurveda, Mann effects the body function i.e. function of indriya (Karmendriya and Gyanendria(5-sense organs)). Piyush granthi also effects the reproductive organs and other parts of body sirectly or indirectly. Mann is present in entire body but specially inside skull. Similarly piyush granthi also present in skull but its secretion are distributed in entire body. Mann is proof of life similarly the function of piyush granthi is a proof. In this way mann and pituitary gland may be co-related as same.

Byan vayu plays vital role in almost all body function. It is present in whole of the body. Similarly different piyush granthi secretion acts in the entire body.

BAMS Entrance question part 2

Introduction of Ayurveda

1)   Ayurveda is related to

a. Science            b. medicine         c. Philosophy     d. all of them

2)   The oldest system of treatment is

a.Allopathy         b. Ayurveda        c.Yunani              d. Homeopathy

3)   Satwa, raja and tama are

a.Tri guna            b. Tridanda         c. Tridosha          d.      d. All of them

4)   There are…. types of Ayu in Ayurveda

a.2              b. 3            c.4               d. 5

5)   Combination of sareera , mana, indriya and aatma are called as

a.Ayu                   b.Ayurveda         c. Health              d. None

6)   Tri sutra in Ayurveda consists of

a.Dosha, dhatu , mala   b. Hetu, linga. aausad

c.Aausad, ayu, aatma    d. Swata, raja, tama

7)   The treatment in Ayurveda is based on

a.Tridosha       b. Micro organisms         c.Panchamahabhut  d. Saptadhatu

8)   There are ….. branches of Ayurveda

a.8              b. 7             c. 4             d. none

9)   Rasayan tantra is also called as

a.Jara vigyan  b. Visha vigyan   c.Chemical science          d. Chemistry

10)    Kaya chikitshya is related to

a.ENT          b. General medicine      c.Childrens and olds    d. Surgery

11)       Shalya tantra is related to

a.ENT           b. General medicine  C.Childrens and adults         d. Surgery

12)    Kumarbhritya deals with

a.Disease of children          b.Disease of pregnant women

c.Disease of old people      d. a and b both

13)    Rasayan tantra is related to

a. Sexuality                                               b. Mental state

c.Re- establishment of youngness           d. all of them

14)    Vajikaran tantra is related to

a.Jara vigyan       b. Vrisha vigyan           c.Sex science     d. Seience of bet

15)    The mental condition and mental state is related to

a.Agad tantra      b. Vajikaran tantra

c.Bhut vigyan      d. Rasayan tantra

16)    Agnivesh tantra is the oldest name of

a.charak samhita          b. susruta samhita

c.ashtanga sangraha     d. Bhel samhita

17)    Charak samhita was written in

a.500B.C.            b. 1500B.C.        c.2500B.C.          d.3500B.C.

18)    Charak samhita mainly deals with

a.Surgury   b. ENT       c.general medicine       d. god and godess

19)    Father of general medicine

a.Charak             b. susruta   c.Hippocrates      d. Da vinchi

20)    There are … sasthans and … chapter in charka samhita

a.8,120       b. 120,8               c.8,66          d. 66,8

21)    Susruta samhita mainly deals with

a.Surgury   b. ENT       c.general medicine       d. god and godess

22)     There are … sasthans and … chapter in Susruta samhita

a.8,120 and 65              b. 120,8 and 66

c.8,120 and 66              d. 66,8 and 120

23)    Who wrote kashyap samhita

a.Jeevak     b. Kashyap                   c.Bhel        d. Bhagbhatta

24)    Samhita found in Nepal is

a.Charak samhita b. Kashyap samhita

c.Bhel samhita    d. susruta samhita

25)    Kashyap samhita deals with

a.Surgury   b. ENT       c.general medicine       d. Kaumarbhritya

26)    Brithat traye consists of

a. Charak samhita, susruta samhita, Kashyap samhita

b. Charak samhita, susruta samhita, Bhagbat samhita

c. Bhavprakash, saranghar and madhav nidan

d. Bhab prakash, madhav nidan, nagarjhuna

27)    Laghu traye consists of

a. Charak samhita, susruta samhita, Kashyap samhita

b. Charak samhita, susruta samhita, Bhagbat samhita

c. bhab prakash, saranghar and madhav nidan

d. bhab prakash, madhav nidan, nagarjhuna

28)    First Ayurveda education in Nepal was conducted in

a.1985 B.S          b. 1885 B.S         c.2053B.S   d. 1974B.S

29)    Naradevi hospital was establish in

a.1985 B.S          b. 1885 B.S         c.2053B.S           d. 1974B.S

30)    Singadarbar vaidhya khana was establish by

a.singha malla     b. jay prakash malla

c. pratap malla    d. gunakamadev

31)    Goal of Ayurveda dosent include

a.  dharma           b. yasa        c. mokshya                    d. kama

32)    … is responsible for body movement, excitation sensation like quick action etc

a.vata         b. pitta       c. kapha     d. all of them

33)    vata consists of predominance of

a. vayu and aakash       b. Agni

c. jala and prithivi        d. all 5 mahabhuts

34)    Pitta is pre dominance of

a. vayu and aakash       b. Agni

c. jala and prithivi        d. all 5 mahabhuts

35)    kapha is predominance of

a. vayu and aakash       b. Agni

c. jala and prithivi        d. all 5 mahabhuts

36)    Physical volume or mass of living organisms is predominantly composed by

a.vata                   b. pitta       c. kapha               d. all of them

37)    All the chemical process in our body is due to

a.vata                   b. pitta       c. kapha     d. all of them

38)    There are … types of vata

a.3                        b. 4             c.5              d. 6

39)    Pran vayu lies in

a.Shir                   b. hridya              c.vrikka               d. pliha

40)    Udan vayu lies in

a.Shir                   b. hridya              c.vrikka               d. uraha

41)     Pachak, sodhak, ranjak, alochak, and bhrajak are types of

a.vata                   b. pitta       c. kapha               d. agni

42)    Which mahabut is predominant in rasa dhatu?

a.Jala                    b. Agni       c.Aakash              d. Vayu

43)     Which mahabut is predominant in rakta dhatu?

a.Jala                    b. Agni       c.Aakash              d. Vayu

44)    Which mahabut is predominant in aasthi dhatu?

a.Jala                    b. Agni       c.Aakash              d. Vayu

45)     Which mahabut is predominant in mamsa and meda dhatu?

a.Jala                    b. Agni       c.Prithivi            d. Vayu

46)    Aakash mahabut is predominant in … dhatu.

a.Mamsa              b. Meda     c.Majja                 d. Sukra

47)    What is the characteristic of aakash mahabhut?

a.Sabda      b.Sparsha            c.Rupa       d. Rasa

48)    What is the characteristic of vayu mahabhut?

a.Sabda      b.Sparsha            c.Rupa       d. Rasa

49)    What is the characteristic of prithivi mahabhut?

a.Sabda      b.Sparsha            c.Rupa       d. Gandha

50)    What is the characteristic of tej/ aagni mahabhut?

a.Sabda                b.Sparsha            c.Rupa                 d. Rasa

Ayurveda And Allopathy

Concept of disease

In late 19th, and 20th centuary microorganisms were considered only, if not , the main cause of disease in allopathic medicine. That is called “germ theory of disease”. But lately the concept has beenchanged and broadened, now it is accepted that disease condition is a very specific stage of existence of all the three factors host, agent and environment at that time. This is explained as epidemiological triad or disease triangle. Avoiding the specific existence of even a single element of disease triangle may give us undesired condition. This theory is very close with Ayurvedic theory of causation of disease.

  1. Disease condition (The triangle is complete here): For the discare condition to be complete, agent should have weak host immune condition and favorable environment to grow and multiply. If host and environment factor are not in favor of agent, triangle will be incomplete and the disease will voccur.
  2. Allopathic treatment (The triangle is not complete here): Here the agent condition is made so weak that it cannot cause any disease i.e. allopathic medicine makes the agent either weak or kill it, thus the triangle will not be complete.
  3. Ayurvedic treatment(The triangle is not complete here): Here the host and environment factors are made unfavorable for the agent i.e. the host immune system is made so strong that the agent cannot cause any disease.

According to Ayurveda, the unbalanced stage of three physiological humors (Dosha) – Vata, Pitta and Kapha by any means will only be the cause of disease. And unbalanced dosha condition is brought about by improper Aahar (food habit) and daily activities i.e. environment factor of triangle Krimi (Pathogens and Parasite) i.e. agent factor of the triangle. Here Vata, Pitta and Kapha itself represents the host factor of triangle.

Treatment Approach in Ayurveda: In Ayurveda medicine are used to establish the balanced stage of the physiological unit (Vata, Pitta and Kapha), or it targets the other factors of disease triangle rather than microorganism (agent). For treatment simply the goal of Ayurvedic treatment is to make person strong immunologically, not to kill microorganism. It should be remembered that we all are exposed frequently to the pathogens but only few, and less frequently develops disease. Ayurveda believs that it is not the Krimi (microorganism) that is important to cause the disease but what is important is your tridosha condition. Though it regards microorganism as cause of disease but treatment approach is mainly towards the tridosha. This ultimately may work as an antimicrobial treatment. So a single Ayurvedic medicine can be used in much disease (which acts through dosha) seeing the strong adaptive capacity of pathogen, Ayurvedic approach of treatment seems very appropriate logically than the allopathic approach. It is not worthy that most of the present antibiotics may be resisted in coming 20 yrs according to WHO.

Virechana Indication and Contraindication

In Ayurveda Virechana is the administration of purgative substances for the cleansing of pitta through the lower pathways.This therapy is recommended basically for imbalanced Pitta Dosha and removes excess pitta through increasing bowel movements Give virechana 3 days after vamana, or directly if vamana is not indicated for a particular individual. In either case, it is necessary to firstly do 3 days of internal oleation, and preferably both snehana (oleation) and svedana (sweating), which are purva karma. Virechana cleanses blood toxins, the sweat glands, kidneys, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, spleen, and rakta vaha srotas.

Indications for Virechana

Contraindications for Virechana

Most pittagenic disorders Childhood and Old age
Skin diseases Acute fever
Chronic fever Diarrhea
Hemmorroids (piles) Dehydration
Abdominal tumors (gulma) Debility and Weakness
Spleenomegaly Emaciation
Hepatomegaly and Jaundice

Bleeding from rectum or lung cavities

Worms Excess snehana or svedana
Erysipelas

Foreign body in the stomach

Gout

Immediately after vamana or basti

Glaucoma Low agni or indigestion
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Prolapsed rectum
 

Severe, chronic constipation with hard stool

  Ulcerative colitis
Substances for Virechana  
Triphala  
Castor oil  
Senna (Sona mukhi)  
Sat Isabgol (Psyllium Seeds)  
Flaxseeds  
Prunes  
Raisins  
Bran  
Cow’s milk  
Cow’s milk and 2 tsp. ghee  
Aloe Vera  
Bhumi Amalaki  
Black Sesame Seeds  
Salt  
Dandelion root  
Nishottara (Jaipal or Croton seed)  
Yellow Thistle (Suvarnaskshiri)  
Kutki (Hellbore)  
Cow’s urine  
Mango juice  

Milk, best value in Ayurveda

Milk is considered an important part of the diet according to Ayurveda. In Sanskrit milk is described as Ksheer. The Astang Sangraha which is an ancient text of Ayurveda has a complete section, Ksheer Varga, which describes milk and milk products. Milk is valued because it is an important source of many of the nutrients essential for the proper development and maintenance of the human body. The main qualities of milk according to Ayurveda are sweet and unctuous.

People in world over often ask questions about milk and milk products, especially in the light of recent research that suggests milk is beneficial only for children. Although it is difficult to decide anything, as there is a lot of debate still going on, it might be appropriate to share the Ayurvedic view on milk and milk products. Also the modern researches are done on the cold milk, but In Ayurveda the properties of milk are described when it is warm. Ayurveda too prohibits one to have cold milk.

Among the different eight types of milk as described by Astanga sangraha, Cow’s milk called Goksheera is the best milk. It has rejuvenating properties called Rasayana in Ayurveda. It is instilled as nasal drops and can be used as body pack or face pack. Milk bath helps to rejuvenate skin. It is used in panchakarma treatment process to induce vamana (emisis) and virechana (purgation). It is also used in basthi (enema).

Qualities of milk

•        Milk decreases vata and pitta, but increases kapha.

•        Milk has a sweet taste (Rasa).

•        It increases the ojas, which is considered to be the essence of all the dhatus (tissues). So it also nourishes the seven dhatus.

•        Milk is a good vrishya (aphrodisiac), which means it strengthens the shukra dhatu (reproductive tissue).

 

•        Milk increases the kapha, and is heavy to digest; so, one should not take cold milk, as it tends to be heavier. Milk should always be taken hot or warm and after boiling.

•        Milk is cooling in nature (shita virya), which means it has a cooling effect on the body.

 

When milk is used during ayurveda a treatment session it alleviates vitiated doshas eliminates them from body. It acts as an appetizer. Milk helps to reduce the period of recuperation. People suffering from anemia, acid peptic disorders, diarrhea, fever etc are greatly benefited by consumption of milk. Milk is of great aid to persons who experience constipation. A quick recovery can be experienced in condition like genital organ infections (male and female), on consumption of milk. It is used in diet regimen for diseases which are caused due to vitiation of vata and pitta. Milk nourishes body and is believed to be a complete food. Daily consumption of milk increases libido, quality and quantity of semen and helps in erectile dysfunction. It helps to boost memory power and strengthens mind. Milk acts as an instant energizer and relieves thirst. The symptoms of bronchitis and cough get reduced by continuous use of milk. Persons suffering from gout are benefited by regular consumption of milk. Milk accelerates wound healing.

When to drink Milk?

Intake of milk is usually not advised in the morning hours, as it is heavy to digest.Intake of milk in the afternoon promotes strength in old people, improves agni in children, removes urinary calculi (krichra Asmari chedanam) and also alleviates kapha and pitta. Drinking of milk in the evening hours is good for eyes and alleviates vata and pitta. Drinking of milk at night is ideal. In daytime people happen to exert much and vidahi annam hence drinking of milk after food is essential at night to reduce tiredness and also good for eyes.

Asthi (Bone) in Ayurveda

Asthi (Bone) in Ayurveda
Asthi, the hardest tissue present in our body develops from asthi dhatwagni, by the action of Agni, Vayu and Prithivi mahabhoota. Asthi dhatwagni acts on Prithivi, agni and vata predominant portion of nutrients and digest this bringing hardness to it. From this, asthi Dhatu is formed. Asthi called bone in Modern concept is osseous connective tissue consisting of the osteocytes, osteoblast and osteoclast for the bone formation and its maintenance.
The number and name of the bone vary according to the various concepts and scholars as in charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita etc. as well as modern medicine. Considering its structure, types of channels of nutrition, blood circulation etc, both by Ayurvedic and modern concept it is concluded that Asthi or bone is the main pillar or the base of the body that gives attachment to the muscles and tendons allowing movement of body as well as different organ due to which the position of various visceral organs are fixed, muscles are volunteered, the body being able to perform its various functions without which no organs, no muscles, no vessels and no nerves would have got their position.
Depending upon shape and size asthi are classified as nalakasthi, kapalasthi, balyasthi, ruchakaasthi and tarunasthi in Ayurveda which can be co-related in modern medicine as long bone, flat bone, ribs, teeth and cartilages.
Thus we can conclude that scholars in Ayurveda had proper knowledge about asthi, their formation, number and shape. But the knowledge was limited, since then no further research in Ayurveda has been attempted. So for the upliftment of Ayurveda the knowledge should be updated and the field should be elaborated in demand of time according to modern science and technology which would certainly provide a milestone for its worldwide recognition and implement to all people.

BAMS Ayurveda entrance question

BAMS Ayurveda entrance question. Here are some question asked in Entrance exam of BAMS nepal. Hope this will be helpful for students preparing for Ayurveda Entrance.

१.     उत्तम अनुशस्त्र कुन हो?

क. हस्त ख. जलौका ग. श्रृंग घ. स्वस्तिक

२.    षडरसयुक्त द्रव्य कुन हो?

क. पारद ख. लसुन ग. अमला घ. स्वर्ण

३.    शरीरमा शुक्र धातुको परिमाण कति हुन्छ?

क. १ अन्जली ख. ०.५ अन्जली ग. २ अन्जली घ. ८ बिन्दु

४.    कति दिनपछिको ज्वरलाई तरुण ज्वर भनिन्छ?

क.७ दिन ख. २४ दिन ग. २१ दिन घ. २८ दिन

५.    धानको वैग्यानिक नाम के हो?

a= Oriza sativa b = Bacopa minnieri          c= Triticum aesticale       d= Osimum sanctum

६.    शुक्र धातु के बाट बन्छ?

क. अस्थि ख. ओज ग. मज्जा घ. मेद

७.    आयुको निम्ति कुन कर्म उत्तम हुन्छ?

क. धर्म ख. अर्थ ग. काम घ. स्वास्थ्य

८.    फक्क रोग कसमा हुन्छ?

क. महिला  ख. वृद्ध ग. बाल घ. युवक

९.    कौमारभृत्यलाई अंग्रेजीमा के भनिन्छ?

क.  Paediatrics      ख.Obstetrics      ग.both a&b       घ. ENT

१०.    पहाडबाट निस्कने खनिज औषधि कुन हो?

क.लाछ्या ख. शिलाजित ग. मण्डुर घ. सबै

११.    आयुर्वेदको मुख्य सिद्धान्त कुन हो?

क.त्रिदोष ख. त्रिगुण ग. पञ्चमहाभूत घ. विकृति

१२.    Astanga Yoga is introduced by:

क.Charaka ख. Sushruta ग.= Patanjali घ. Kashyapa

१३.    आमाबाबुबाट बच्चामा सर्ने रोगलाई के भनिन्छ?

क.गर्भजन्य ख. सहज ग. कालज घ.जातज

१४.    गुर्वादी गुणको संख्या कति हुन्छ?

क. १० ख. १२ ग. १४ घ. २०

१५.   वमन द्रव्यहरुमा श्रेष्ठ द्रव्य कुन हो?

क. मुलेठी ख. नीम ग. मदनफल घ. पिप्पली

१६.    बोधक कफको स्थान कुन हो?

क. आमाशय ख. ह्रदय ग. शिर घ. जिब्रो

१७.   विदेह तन्त्रको अर्को नाम के हो?

क. शल्य तन्त्र ख. कायचिकित्सा ग. कौमारभृत्य घ. शालक्यतन्त्र

१८.    पाषाणभेदको प्रयोग कुन रोगमा गरिन्छ?

क. अश्मरी ख. वातरक्त ग. अम्लपित्त घ. सबै

१९.    मधुर रसले कुन दोष घटाउँछ?

क. पित्त र कफ ख. वात र कफ ग. वात र पित्त घ. वात,पित्त र कफ

२०.   कफको प्रकोपमा कुन चाहिँ संशोधन कर्म गरिन्छ?

क. विरेचन ख. वमन ग. महको सेवन घ. वस्ती

२१.    एक रातिमा कति प्रमाण हुन्छ?

क. ६० मि.ग्रा ख. १२५ ग्राम ग. ५०० मि.ग्रा घ. १२५ मि.ग्रा

२२.   रसाञ्जन कुन द्रव्यबाट बनाइन्छ?

क. दारुहरिद्रा ख. सर्ज ग. आम्र घ. गुडुची

२३.   सुतशेखर रसको प्रयोग कुन रोगमा गरिन्छ?

क. वातरक्त ख. अम्लपित्त ग. राजयछ्मा घ.कास

२४.   रजोनिवृत्ति कुन उमेरमा हुन्छ?

क. १४ वर्ष ख. ३० वर्ष ग. ५० वर्ष घ. ७० वर्ष

२५.   बृहतत्रयीमा कुन पर्दैन?

क.अष्टांगसंग्रह ख. अष्टांगहृदय ग. चरक संहिता घ. सुश्रुत संहिता